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Metadata by function

For cataloging:

Dublin Core

15 metadata elements for the description of digital resources. Provides a basic level of interoperability.

Maintained at OCLC – Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.


DC to MARC Transformers

These should be used with the java SAXON transformer compiler.


Qualified Dublin Core

Not a metadata format but rather a list of DC terms that can be used in any application profile. No official schema exists for encoding qualified DC. In practice, a multiplicity of schemas have been created to use QDC.

Maintained at OCLC – Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.



For transfer between digital libraries:


METS is a structured container of different types of metadata: descriptive,structural and administrative. It does not determine which metadata format (s) is/are going to be used for the description of the digital object. As a result, it is implemented with application profiles. A number of metadata formats have however been endorsed as METS extensions, i.e. DC, MODS,PREMIS, etc. It has been extensively used in the library community to represent and exchange information about complex objects (including, for example, a hierarchical representation of their structure).

It is maintained by the Library of Congress and used in a number of projects related to objects exchange between repositories and preservation.

For bibliographies:


Library-oriented, MODS is a simplified, “human-readable” version of MARC. It has received considerable attention in the academic library community for exchanging XML-formatted information (see for example a MODS application profile for the Digital Library Federation). MODS records were originally often mapped from MARC records. However, more and more native MODS records are created.

It is maintained at the Library of Congress. http://www.


A set of metadata formats traditionally used in the library community to create and exchange bibliographic information. Multiple local implementations of MARC exist. MARCXML has been created from MARC21 (merging USMARC and CAN/MARC).

The MARCXML schema is maintained by the Library of Congress.

For digital preservation:

For open access information:


The OAI BASE URL's for SUNeTD and SUNScholar are:


Some local examples.


Information links.


IEEE standard developed for Learning Object Metadata. It is aimed at the exchange and reuse of learning objects. It contains many types of metadata for the inclusion of learning resources into Learning Management Systems. The IMS Global Learning Consortium has developed specifications for Learning Resource Metadata (as well as for content packaging, etc). IMS has now aligned the XML binding for LRM to IEEE LOM. Application profiles include: Cancore [1], UK LOM Core [2] and LOMFR [3]

For semantic modeling:

For these and dissertations


Dublin Core application profile for theses and dissertations maintained by Die Deutsche Bibliothek. [4]


The electronic theses and dissertations metadataset [5] is a metadata standard developed for interoperability in the scope of the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. It is based on Dublin Core.

Base standards used


Editing Tools

DSpace Metadata

Standards and encoding schemas used in DSpace