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Budapest Open Access Initiative - On infrastructure and sustainability



  • Every publishing scholar in every field and country, including those not affiliated with institutions of higher education, should have deposit rights in an OA repository.
  • This will require more institutional repositories or more disciplinary repositories, or both.
  • It may also require, at least in the short term, more universal repositories or repositories of last resort for scholars who don’t have an OA repository in their institution or field.
  • The interface text in these universal repositories should be available in several languages.


  • OA repositories should acquire the means to harvest from and re-deposit to other OA repositories.
  • Researchers who have reason to deposit into more than one repository should only have to deposit once.
  • When possible, institutional repositories should offer to re-deposit articles in disciplinary repositories requested by authors (e.g. arXiv, PubMed Central, SSRN), and should harvest or download copies of faculty publications deposited in disciplinary repositories.


  • OA repositories should make download, usage, and citation data available to their authors, and make these data available to the tools computing alternative impact metrics. Journal publishers should do the same, whether or not their journals are OA.
  • Repositories should share these data with one another in standard formats, making it possible (for example) for authors to learn the total downloads for an article on deposit in multiple repositories.
  • No author and no repository should have interest in blocking re-deposit in an additional repository simply to preserve an accurate measure of traffic.


  • Universities and funding agencies should help authors pay reasonable publication fees at fee-based OA journals, and find comparable ways to support or subsidize no-fee OA journals.
  • In both cases, they should require libre OA under open licenses, preferably CC-BY licenses or the equivalent, as a condition of their financial support.
  • Supporting peer-reviewed OA journals in these ways should be a top priority for any money saved from the cancellation or conversion of subscription journals.
  • Supporting peer-reviewed OA journals can be particularly important for journals with a more limited audience, such as journals focusing on national law in smaller countries or journals published in a local language, and for journals where publication fees are inappropriate, such as review journals which solicit review articles from authors.


  • When subscription-based or non-OA journals permit any kind of self-archiving, or deposit into OA repositories, they should describe what they permit in precise human-readable and machine-readable terms, under an open standard.
  • These descriptions should include at least the version that may be deposited, the timing of deposits, and the licenses that could be attached to deposited versions.




  • We should improve and apply the tools necessary to harvest the references or bibliographic citations from published literature.
  • The facts about who cited whom are in the public domain, and should be OA in standard formats for use, reuse, and analysis.
  • This will assist researchers and research institutions in knowing what literature exists, even if they don’t have access to it, and in the development of new metrics for access and impact.
  • We urge all publishers to cooperate with this effort.
  • We recommend the development of infrastructure where reference data may be deposited by publishers, authors, volunteers, third-party entrepreneurs, or software, and where the reference data may be hosted for OA distribution.


  • We should assist in the gathering, organizing, and disseminating of OA metadata in standard formats for all new and old publications, including non-OA publications.


  • Scholarly publishers need infrastructure for cross-linking and persistent URLs based on open standards, available at no charge, and supporting linking and attribution at arbitrary levels of granularity, such as paragraph-level, image-level, and assertion-level identification.


  • We encourage the further development of open standards for interoperability, and tools to implement those standards in OA journals and repositories.


  • We encourage experiments with different methods of post-publication review, and research into their effectiveness.
  • OA through repositories, OA through journals, and OA through books are all compatible with every kind of traditional pre-publication peer review, and OA does not presuppose any particular form of peer review.
  • We recommend experiments with post-publication peer review not because it will be superior, although it might, but because it would reduce delays before new work becomes OA and could reduce first-copy costs.


  • We encourage experiments with new forms of the scholarly research “article” and “book” in which texts are integrated in useful ways with underlying data, multimedia elements, executable code, related literature, and user commentary.
  • We encourage experiments to take better advantage of the digital medium, and digital networks, for the benefit of research.
  • We encourage experiments to take better advantage of the ways in which OA articles remove access barriers for machines, and not just for human readers.
  • We encourage the use of open standards and formats to foster these uses, and research on their effectiveness.
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